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  Har den sociale baggrund samme betydning for efterkommere og etniske danskere for deres skolepræstationer?
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 Ophav:
Akbar, Kiran1, Forfatter
Ejrnæs, Mette2, Vejleder
Tilknytninger:
1Det Samfundsvidenskabelige Fakultet, Københavns Universitet, København, Danmark, diskurs:7001              
2Økonomisk Institut, Det Samfundsvidenskabelige Fakultet, Københavns Universitet, København, Danmark, diskurs:7014              
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Indhold

Ukontrollerede emneord: PISA-undersøgelse i 2009, Empirisk analyse
 Abstract: The problem revolving this dissertation is:
“The social background is often used to explain the gap on educational attainment between descendants and natives. But does social background affect the school performance of descendants as much as the native population in Denmark? What other factors may explain this gap and do these factors influence both ethnic groups the same way?”
This dissertation has aimed to contribute on mainly the effect of social background for the corresponding populations. Finding a diverse effect between natives and descendants would imply that policy initiatives should focus least on that ethnic group, which is least influenced by social background, as this group would be relatively less impeded by their social background.
In order to address the problem, an empirical study is executed by using a rich dataset provided by PISA – Programme for International Student Assessment, which test the school performance of 15 year old students. The school performance is measured by the reading scores, which is assumed to encompass the overall school performance of the students.
Initially, four general hypotheses with regards to social background, gender, ethnicity, and school types are outlined, whereas these aspects cover this empirical study. In this research, it is hypothesized that social background has a lower impact on descendants compared to natives. This could be due to difficulties for immigrants to support their children professionally in school, as immigrants generally face language barriers, which hereby hinder the transfer of knowledge from parents to children. Moreover, it is hypothesized that girls would perform better than boys, and language barriers for descendants would have a negative impact on the reading scores.
Other researches provide deeper insights to how and which factors may explain the gap for students in Denmark. Selected factors are analyzed separately and finally applied in a multiple regression model with and without interaction terms. Here the reading score is used as the dependent variable. The estimates are calculated through three methodologies: Sampling weights, replicates weights and plausible values, which are contained in the data for PISA.
1)A strong and positive effect of the socioeconomic status. A diverse and smaller effect of socioeconomic status for descendants is observed, but is however, not robust.
2) A strong and positive effect of being a girl, but no significantly larger or smaller gender difference for descendants compared to natives.
3)Language preference for Danish has a positive and strong effect for descendants, and improves the gap significantly by more than half of the gap.
4)Attending a school with a high fraction of bilingual students has a larger and more negative impact for the descendants than natives.
Regarding the effect of socioeconomic status, the null hypothesis of similar effect for both ethnic groups is accepted, as there is only a weak indication of a diverse effect. The rest of the above mentioned results are consistent with a Danish research (AKF and authors, 2011).
Over and all, these results suggest that policy initiatives should be targeted on descendants with difficulties in the Danish language and who attend schools with many immigrants.
However, it can be discussed, how well the index of socioeconomic status, ESCS, used for social background capture the real effect of the social background, as it is based on student questionnaires. The ESCS index may contain measurement errors, which will bias the results. It is therefore recommended to use other measures than the ESCS index to control for the social background for the students, particularly for the descendants as they may face more obstacles providing information about their parents.
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Speciale_Kiran_Akbar(1).pdf (Hovedtekst)
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Copyright dato:
2013-09-13
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Basal

Bogmærk denne post: https://diskurs.kb.dk/item/diskurs:52832:1
 Type: Speciale
Alternativ titel: Et empirisk studie af efterkommeres og etniske danskeres læsefærdigheder i PISA 2009
Alternativ titel: Does the Social Background Have the Same Effect for the Descendants and Native Danish Students for Their Educational Outcome?
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Detaljer

Sprog: English - eng
 Datoer: 2013-08-17
 Sider: -
 Publiceringsinfo: København : Københavns Universitet
 Indholdsfortegnelse: 1. Indledning s. 1
1.1. Hypoteser s. 2
1.2. Metodevalg s. 3
1.3. Afgrænsning s. 4
1.4. Disposition s. 4
2. Teori s. 5
2.1. Gary Becker og investering i human kapital s. 5
2.2. Pierre Bourdieu og de tre kapitalformer s. 6
3. Forskning s. 7
3.1. Rapporten ”PISA etnisk 2009” og forklarende faktorer s. 8
3.2. Effekten af den sociale baggrund s. 11
3.3. Modellen s. 12
4. PISA-undersøgelsen 2009 s.13
4.1. Baggrund og formål s. 13
4.2. Den praktiske gennemførelse s. 13
4.3. Domænet læsning s. 14
4.4. Spørgeskemaer s. 16
4.5. Stikprøveindsamlingen s. 18
5. Data s. 20
5.1. De udvalgte variable s. 20
5.2. Udvælgelse af observationer s. 24
5.3. Statistiske mål og de tre metodologier s. 28
5.3.1. Stikprøvevægte s. 28
5.3.2. Replicates s. 29
5.3.3. Plausible values s. 30
5.4. Datakvalitet s. 31
6. Deskriptiv analyse s. 32
6.1. Fordeling af elevpopulationen s. 32
6.2. Læsefærdighedsniveauer s. 34
6.3. Læsescore og udvalgte forhold s. 35
6.3.1. Læsescore og socioøkonomiske forhold s. 36
6.3.2. Læsescore og køn s. 38
6.3.3. Læsescore og sprog s. 39
6.3.4. Læsescore og andel af tosprogede på skolen s. 39
7. Den økonometriske model s. 41
7.1. Variable i modellen s. 41
7.2. MLR-antagelserne og stikprøven s. 43
8. Resultater s. 45
9. Diskussion s. 46
9.1. Tolkning af resultater s. 46
9.2. Policy-implikationer s. 49
9.3 Problemstillinger ved ESCS-indekset s. 51
9.4. Andre problemstillinger ved udvalgte variable s. 54
10. Konklusion s. 56
11. Litteraturliste s. 58
11.1. Bøger og publikationer s. 58
11.2. Hjemmesider s. 59
11.3. Mailkorrespondance s. 60
12. Appendiks s. 61
12.1. Appendiks A s. 61
12.2. Appendiks B s. 70
12.3. Appendiks C s. 72
12.4. Appendiks D s. 73
12.5. Appendiks E s. 77
 Note: -
 Type: Speciale
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