de.mpg.escidoc.pubman.appbase.FacesBean

Post

 
 Vis
  Sygefravær og psykisk arbejdsmiljø
Item is

Ophav

 Ophav:
Lægdsgaard Madsen, Sofie Amalie1, Forfatter
Rosdahl, Anders2, Vejleder
Tilknytninger:
1Det Samfundsvidenskabelige Fakultet, Københavns Universitet, København, Danmark, diskurs:7001              
2Økonomisk Institut, Det Samfundsvidenskabelige Fakultet, Københavns Universitet, København, Danmark, diskurs:7014              
skjul Ophav
Vis Ophav

Indhold

Ukontrollerede emneord: Psykisk Arbejdsmilø, Sygefravær, Herzberg, Krav-kontrol-støtte
 Abstract: The aim of this thesis is to investigate whether or not selected psychosocial factors in the working environment explain absence due to illness. Absence due to illness is in Denmark accountable for a yearly expense of approximately 37 billion DKK. The expense is not only a cost for the state, but also very costly for the private companies. Furthermore, the employees who are absent from work often have lower chances to return to the labour market, resulting in people increasingly becoming dependent on social benefits. It is often favourable to divide the absence due to illness into short and long spells of absence. Short spells of absence are for absence of 21 days or less, whereas long spells are for absence longer than 21 days. The longer the absence, the lower are the chances of returning to the job.
It can also be seen that the workforce is decreasing compared to the total number population of Denmark, resulting in some political challenges and decisions on how to increase the level of employment.
In Denmark, workers are being compensated when they are absent from work due to illness. It is stated in the sickness benefit law. According to the law, if the employees do not receive full pay during illness the employer must pay sickness benefits for up to 30 days. If the employee has not returned to work, the benefits are paid by the state for up to 52 weeks. Economic theory of an employee’s absence describes that the compensation is likely to influence the choice of being absent or going to work. When the employee is fully compensated, the consumption of leisure will increase, when leisure is a normal good. The theory argues against full compensation of the employee; but has not taken in to account the health of the employee, which obviously also has a say. When the employee is sick, the consumption of leisure will increase, because of the need to recover and get well. Because of the impact of sickness, a principal agent model argues that some compensation of the employee is needed to avoid that sick people go to work. This can influence the productivity and the output of the company. The principal (being the company) wishes to ensure that sick people stay home to recover, but needs to make sure that the compensation is not going to raise the incentive for the healthy workers to stay at home too. The theory concludes that compensation is needed, although not full compensation.
The economic theory does not take into account all factors that can influence the absence due to illness. Several studies and organizational theories try to describe the psychosocial working environment as an important influence of the absence due to illness. The control-demand-support model, which is an expansion of Karasek’s demand-control model, describes that the combination of low support, high demands and low control will increase the job strain and stress, which could lead to the possibility of sick leave. The combination, however, will not specify which of the factors the effect will come from, which is why the factors influence, demands and support in this empirical paper, will be separately included in the regression. Further Herzberg and the Job-characteristics model constructed by Hackman and Oldham, lead to more loose definitions of the factors. Herzberg’s two-factor theory includes the hygiene factors and the motivators. The hygiene factors help to prevent job dissatisfaction, but do not themselves lead to job satisfaction. Only when the hygiene factors are present is there a possibility to be motivated through the motivators and therefore achieve job satisfaction. If the motivators are not present, it will not lead to job dissatisfaction, but instead lead to no job satisfaction. Job dissatisfaction could be a proxy for sickness absence. If the employees are dissatisfied with their jobs, it could be expressed in being absent from work. The job-characteristics model is an expansion of Herzberg’s two-factor theory, which specifies that absence can be a result of characteristics regarding the job. Based on the two theories, the factors that are investigated in my analysis are job security, job satisfaction, bullying, violence, threats, development and rewards.
The data used in this paper is from The National Research Centre for The Working Environment for the year 2005, where several variables that explain every included factor are included. I divide the populations into three subsets of data; female, male and all. This is done to see whether or not there is a difference between genders. The paper will also describe three analyses taking into account the duration of the absence, using logistic regression. The first analysis is based on sickness absence above 0 days, to see if the psychosocial factors influence the sickness absence at all. The following two analyses are divided in short and long term spells as defined above to see if the same factors affect the duration of the sickness absence.
The paper starts by investigating the result including all sick-leave. In the matter of psychosocial working environment I find evidence that the factors do influence the sick leave, which indicates that not all aspects of the included factors have the expected operational sign. Influence, demands and social support all have dimensions that increases and decreases the possibility of sick leave. The only result according to these factors that vary across gender is the social support. Women who never receive social support from their nearest manager have an increasing possibility of being absent due to illness. Interestingly the same applied to men, shows that the opposite is applicable. The result does not vary across different spells, but only in significance, meaning that some factors only affect the short spells and some factors only affect the long. When the variables are significant in both analyses, they share the same operational sign. Almost all the same factors affect the short and the long spells. Job security is only significant in the analysis for the long spells. The correlation is also different across genders. Men who are afraid of being fired have increasing chances of having long spells. The opposite applies for women.
My conclusion is that the results from the empirical analyses of the psychosocial working environment on sickness absence vary. Due to the fact that the included factors that are chosen from the organizational models often tend to be loosely defined, it gives the analyst a free choice to choose widely between a number of factors. It is therefore the analyst’s responsibility to include what is possible regarding the dataset, but also to apply the theoretical models. The theories seem to lack this uniqueness, which could be a reason why the empirical evidence concludes differently. However, my analyses find evidence on how to decrease the short and the long spells when looking at the psychosocial working environment, especially by preventing bullying and increasing motivation.
The concept of Recovery has become increasingly important in Danish psychiatry and especially in social psychiatric practice (socialpsykiatrien) over the last 15-20 years and some even see the concept as a new paradigm in the mental health system. In this view, the use of the concept is seen as an emancipatory project that aims to put an end to the totalizing and disempowering practices that tend to dominate the mental health system.
One of the most central elements of the concept is that the process of recovery is mainly an individual process.
In this thesis, I critically investigate some of the pitfalls that follow from this pronounced focus on the individual and I present an alternative approach that may help overcome these pitfalls by placing a stronger emphasis on the role of the patients’ network in the treatment.
First, I explain how and why the concept of Recovery can be seen as a new approach in the mental health system.
Then, on the basis of a Foucaultian understanding of power, I show how some aspects of recovery can be seen as a technology of the self, which structures the fields of possible actions in a certain way, why Recovery can’t be seen only as an emancipating practice. In addition, the individual’s commitment to recovery-process and own empowerment claimed to be a positive effect of the treatment, results in a risk that Recovery, instead of being an emancipatory practice, is understood as an act of will. The mentally ill is not only participating in his own recovery-process – he is responsible for it. I further argue that these limitations make it difficult to accomplish the goal of a new emancipatory and empowering approach in the recovery-oriented parts of the mental health system.
One way to meet this potential pitfall is to see the mental illness as a relational phenomenon, which I explore in the final part of the thesis. In Western Lapland Jaakko Seikkula has developed an approach to the treatment of mental illness called Open Dialogue. In this approach, the mental illness is viewed as socially constructed and the treatment thus must involve the network around the ill, both the personal and the professional network. Through the involvement of the network it might be possible to recognize the individual when treating mentally ill and at the same time avoid the pitfalls of the Recovery approach.
Based on the investigation of Recovery and Open Dialogue I conclude that the individualization must happen in a social context. The constitution of the individual and the constitution of relations are not opposites but are mutually dependent. The recognition of the individual is a relational phenomenon and it cannot it happen only by assigning the individual certain rights or by having certain standards in the work with mentally ill people. The necessary recognition can only happen through a constitution of recognitive relations where the mentally ill is seen as one of many contributors.
skjul Indhold
Vis Indhold

Filer

Bemærkninger:
-
Tilgængelighed:
Offentlig
Mime-type / størrelse:
application/pdf / 3MB
Copyright dato:
2013-07-11
Copyright information:
De fulde rettigheder til dette materiale tilhører forfatteren.
skjul Filer
Vis Filer

Basal

Bogmærk denne post: https://diskurs.kb.dk/item/diskurs:52680:1
 Type: Speciale
Alternativ titel: En empirisk analyse af udvalgte faktorers betydning for henholdsvis det korte og lange sygefravær
skjul Basal
Vis Basal

Links

Vis Links

Detaljer

Sprog: Danish - dan
 Datoer: 2013-05-16
 Sider: -
 Publiceringsinfo: København : Københavns Universitet
 Indholdsfortegnelse: KAPITEL 1 INDLEDNING 1
1.1 PROBLEMFORMULERING 2
1.2 OPGAVENS STRUKTUR 2
KAPITEL 2 SYGEFRAVÆR 3
2.1 DET DANSKE SYGEFRAVÆR – ET KORT OVERBLIK 3
2.2 AFGRÆNSNING 7
2.3 OPSUMMERING 10
KAPITEL 3 ØKONOMISK TEORI OM FRAVÆR FRA ARBEJDSMARKEDET 11
3.1 KLASSISK UDBUDSTEORI 11
3.2 RISIKOEN FOR SYGEFRAVÆR 14
3.3 HVORFOR ER SYGEDAGPENGE SÅ IKKE LIG MED 0? 16
3.4 OPSUMMERING 18
KAPITEL 4 DET PSYKISKE ARBEJDSMILJØ 19
4.1 FAKTORER I DET PSYKISKE ARBEJDSMILJØ 19
4.2 KRAV-KONTROL MODELLEN 20
4.3 KRAV-KONTROL-STØTTE MODELLEN 24
4.4 UDVALGTE FAKTORER PÅ BAGGRUND AF KRAV-KONTROL-STØTTE MODELLEN 25
4.4.1 INDFLYDELSE 25
4.4.2 KRAV 26
4.4.3 SOCIAL STØTTE 27
4.5 HERZBERGS TEORI 28
4.6 JOB KARAKTERISTIKA MODELLEN – HACKMAN & OLDHAM 29
4.7 UDVALGTE FAKTORER PÅ BAGGRUND AF HERZBERGS TEORI SAMT JOB-KARAKTERISTIKA MODELLEN 32
4.7.1 JOBSIKKERHED/JOBUSIKKERHED 32
4.7.2 JOBTILFREDSHED/JOBUTILFREDSHED 33
4.7.3 MOBNING, VOLD OG TRUSLER 33
4.7.4 UDVIKLING AF FÆRDIGHEDER 34
4.7.5 BELØNNING 34
4.8 SAMMENLIGNING AF KRAV-KONTROL-STØTTE MODELLEN MED HERZBERG OG JOB-KARAKTERISTIKA MODELLEN 35
4.9 OPSUMMERING 36
KAPITEL 5 DATA 37
5.1 DATABESKRIVELSE AF DEN NATIONALE ARBEJDSMILJØKOHORTE 37
5.2 UDFORDRINGER VED SURVEY DATA 38
5.3 SYGEFRAVÆR – DEN AFHÆNGIGE VARIABEL 39
5.4 BESKRIVELSE AF MEDTAGEDE VARIABLE 40
5.4.1 SOCIOØKONOMISKE VARIABLE 41
5.4.2 INDFLYDELSE 42
5.4.3 KRAV 43
5.4.4 SOCIAL STØTTE 44
5.4.5 JOBSIKKERHED 44
5.4.6 JOBTILFREDSHED 44
5.4.7 MOBNING/TRUSLER/VOLD 45
5.4.8 UDVIKLING 45
5.4.9 BELØNNING 46
5.5 VALG AF METODE 47
5.6 OPSUMMERING 47
KAPITEL 6 ANALYSE AF SYGEFRAVÆR OG PSYKISK ARBEJDSMILJØ 48
6.1 ANALYSE AF FAKTORER DER PÅVIRKER SYGEFRAVÆRET 48
6.2 ANALYSE AF FAKTORER DER PÅVIRKER DET KORTE SYGEFRAVÆR 55
6.3 ANALYSE AF FAKTORER DER PÅVIRKER DET LANGE SYGEFRAVÆR 60
KAPITEL 7 DISKUSSION 64
7.1 DISKUSSION AF RESULTATERNE 64
7.1.1 SOCIOØKONOMISKE VARIABLE 64
7.1.2 INDFLYDELSE 67
7.1.3 KRAV 68
7.1.4 SOCIAL STØTTE 69
7.1.5 JOBUSIKKERHED 70
7.1.6 MOBNING, VOLD OG TRUSLER 71
7.1.7 UDVIKLING 72
7.1.8 BELØNNING 73
7.2 DE RESULTATER DER IKKE ER SIGNIFIKANTE – HVAD MED DEM? 73
7.3 SAMMENFATNING 74
KAPITEL 8 KONKLUSION 77
KAPITEL 9 LITTERATURLISTE 79
BILAG I
A.1 FORDELING AF SYGEFRAVÆRSDAGE I STIKPRØVE I
A.2 DESKRIPTIV STATISTIK AF MEDTAGNE VARIABLE II
A.3 SAMMENHÆNG MELLEM JOBTILFREDSHED OG SYGEFRAVÆRSDAGE I STIKPRØVE IV
A.4 FORDELING AF MOBNING, TRUSLER OG VOLD I STIKPRØVEN V
A. 5 BILAGSTABEL INSIGNIFIKANTE RESULTATER FOR ALT SYGEFRAVÆR VI
A.6 BILAGSTABEL INSIGNIFIKANTE RESULTATER FOR KORT SYGEFRAVÆR VIII
 Note: -
 Type: Speciale
skjul Detaljer
Vis Detaljer

Kilde

Vis Kilde