The persistence of depression
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Glendrange, Merete1, Forfatter
Vangkilde, Signe2, Vejleder
1Det Samfundsvidenskabelige Fakultet, Københavns Universitet, København, Danmark, diskurs:7001              
2Institut for Psykologi, Det Samfundsvidenskabelige Fakultet, Københavns Universitet, København, Danmark, diskurs:7012              
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Ukontrollerede emneord: cognitive processes, executive functions, inhibition, depression, cognitive control
 Abstract: Depression is probably one of the best known and common of the mental disorders. The disorder is so burdensome that the World Health Organization has labeled it as a public health issue alongside cancer and cardiovascular disease. Even though the disorder is well studied, with several evidence based treatment interventions aimed at reducing symptoms and preventing relapse, the disorder has a recurrence rate which produces concern. Approximately 80 % of depressive individuals will experience more than one depressive episode, and the probability of experiencing another episode increases for every relapse-recurrence. Clearly, there is still more to learn about the etiology of depression. The most influential theoretical frameworks of depression have been the cognitive models, guiding both research and clinical interventions. For several years researchers focused at the cognitive content characterizing depression, but more recently this focus has been shifted to cognitive processes in depression. Such research can provide important insights into the etiology, maintenance and recurrence of depression. This thesis sought to investigate the existing and more recent literature concerning cognitive processes and executive functions (i.e., cognitive control), to see how these constructs influence depression. The results are further discussed in relation to theory and treatment of depression, and some methodological issues encountered when reviewing the literature is also elaborated. Findings indicate that depressive individuals exhibit difficulties with cognitive control for negative emotional material, and such impairments seem to be related to rumination, a known risk factor for the development, maintenance, and recurrence of depression. Thus, control impairments appear to influence the vulnerability to depression, meaning that treatment methods could benefit from targeting these impairments. Nonetheless, to date the literature on this topic is far from conclusive, and further research is needed to gain more insight.
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 Type: Speciale
Alternativ titel: Investigating the role of cognitive processes and executive functions in clinical depression
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Sprog: English - eng
 Datoer: 2013-04-09
 Sider: -
 Publiceringsinfo: København : Københavns Universitet
 Indholdsfortegnelse: Chapter 1 – Introduction 6
1.1 Thesis statement 7
1.2 Limitations of the scope of the thesis . 7
Chapter 2 – Cognition 8
2.1 Cognition, a definition 8
2.2 Executive functions – cognitive control: inhibition, shifting and updating 8
2.3 Working memory – Baddeley’s multi-component model 10
2.4 Cognitive functions and depression 13
Chapter 3 – Depression 13
3.1 What is depression? 13
3.1.1 Clinical information . 13
3.1.2 Epidemiology . 14
3.1.3 Vulnerability and risk factors 15
3.2 Cognitive theories of depression 17
3.2.1 Beck’s schema theory 17
3.2.2 Ingram – information processing analysis 18
3.2.3 Impaired cognitive control accounts 20
3.2.4 The combined cognitive bias hypothesis (CCBH) in depression 21
3.3 Rumination . 23
3.3.1 The impaired disengagement hypothesis . 26
Chapter 4 – Treatment of depression . 28
4.1 Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) 28
4.1.1 Theory and clinical practice . 28
4.1.2 How effective is CBT in treating depression? . 29
4.2 Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) 31
Chapter 5 – Cognitive biases and control 33
5.1 Cognitive information biases in depression 33
5.1.1 Attentional biases . 33
5.1.2 Memory biases . 38
5.1.3 Interpretation biases . 39
5.1.4 Do information processing biases persist beyond the depressive episode? . 40
5.2 Cognitive control - inhibitory functions . 42
5.2.2 Cognitive control and rumination 51
5.2.3 Cognitive control and memory 60
Chapter 6 – Discussion and conclusion 61
6.1 General discussion 61
6.2 Theoretical implications . 64
6.3 Clinical implications . 67
6.4 Methodological issues 71
6.5 Concluding remarks 74
Bibliography . 76
 Note: -
 Type: Speciale
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