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  Partnerstalking i et evolutionspsykologisk perspektiv
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Ophav

 Ophav:
Færch, Tine1, Forfatter
Elstrup, Ole 2, Vejleder
Tilknytninger:
1Det Samfundsvidenskabelige Fakultet, Københavns Universitet, København, Danmark, diskurs:7001              
2Institut for Psykologi, Det Samfundsvidenskabelige Fakultet, Københavns Universitet, København, Danmark, diskurs:7012              
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Indhold

Ukontrollerede emneord: Stalking, evolution, aggression, gender, adaptation, sexual strategy, attachment
 Abstract: The topics of stalking in intimate relationships have gained increasing social, scientific and legal attention during the last decade. Several theoretical explanations have been offered on the development of this behavior at differing levels of analysis. A growing body of research yields to conclusions about the culturally universal, gendered and inherently aggressive nature of intimate partner stalking, that current unidirectional, uni-level theories fail to fully explain. The aim of this thesis is to provide an integrative and contextual developmental model for stalking in intimate relationships, using evolutionary theory as meta-theoretical framework. The thesis takes stock of the burgeoning multidisciplinary literature on intimate partner stalking. The development of the concept of stalking and its corresponding literature is outlined and extracted as social, legal and scientific discursive influences on the development of the stalking concept. Review and synthesis of current scholarship delineates and contrasts two perspectives, the forensic-clinical and the feminist-constructivist as differing, paradigmatic approaches to stalking. An integration of contextual and individualistic perspectives is proposed through Darwins (1871) principles of adaptation, selection and reproduction. The author construes stalking in intimate relationships as cognitive and behavioral strategies that serves as functional adaptations to pressures of sexual selection and conflict. Stalking is construed as an infliction of cost upon another with the purpose of approximating to one´s own reproductive goal. Buss´ (1961) Sexual Strategies Theory serves as explanatory framework for the phylogenetic origin of stalking behaviors as adaptative solutions to recurrent reproductive problems faced by ancient man, amongst others: mate acquisition, mate retention, mate re-acquisition and deterrence of sexual competitors. Differential Parental Investment theory (Trivers, 1971) accrues gender differences in reproductive strategies to basic biological aspects of the reproductive process. Due to strategic, sexual conflict and the reproductive cost of cuckoldry, male sexual aggression and risk taking behaviors has under certain reproductive contexts adaptive value. Ontogenetic origins of stalking behavior is construed as dysfunctional patterns of attachment (Bowlby, 1969) originating from adversive childhood experiences with primary caregivers. Insecure attachment, primary ambivalent and fearful types, is ascribed stalkers. In adult romantic relationships, ambivalent and fearful persons displays impairment of emotion regulation in the face of emotional stress, negative view of self and an activating or combined activating-deactivating behavioral strategy in the face of loss or rejection of a valued partner. The relationship between attachment insecurity and other psychological dysfunction re: stalking behavior is examined. A comprehensive and probalistic developmental model for phylogenetically based and ontogenetically expressed stalking behaviors as a cost-inflicting, risky and aggressive sexual strategy is presented, stating that stalking is expressed under certain reproductive contexts that signals the probability of acquiring reproductive possibilities and inter-individual competition for mates. Finally, I outline possible points of development for behavioral intervention in the light of an economic, adaptionistic model for stalking behavior and victim-offender interaction.
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Copyright dato:
2012-07-06
Copyright information:
De fulde rettigheder til dette materiale tilhører forfatteren.
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Basal

Bogmærk denne post: https://diskurs.kb.dk/item/diskurs:31276:4
 Type: Speciale
Alternativ titel: -fællesmenneskelige og individuelle faktorer i udviklingen af stalking i romantiske relationer
Alternativ titel: An evolutionary perspective on stalking in romantic relations
Alternativ titel: -shared and individual factors in the development of stalking in romantic contexts
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Detaljer

Sprog: Danish - dan
 Datoer: 2012-02-15
 Sider: -
 Publiceringsinfo: København : Københavns Universitet
 Indholdsfortegnelse: Indledning . 1
1.1 Motiv for speciale 1
1.2 Sex hovedobservationer om stalking . 2
1.2.1 Stalking er et nyt navn for en gammel adfærd . 3
1.2.2 Stalking er et udbredt fænomen. 3
1.2.3 Stalking er et universelt fænomen 4
1.2.4 Partnerstalking er den mest udbredte stalkingform 5
1.2.5 Partnerstalking er kønsspecifik . 6
1.2.6 Partnerstalking er forbundet med andre former for vold 6
1.2.6 Opsummering 9
1.3 Perspektiver på partnerstalking . 9
1.4 Arbejdshypotese og fremgangsmåde . 11
1.5 Problemformulering 12
2 Introduktion til Partnerstalking. . 12
2.1 Definition af begrebet ”Stalking” og ”Partnerstalking” 12
2.1.1 Stalking . 12
2.1.2 Offerdefinitioner. . 13
2.1.3 Afgrænsning af stalking fra anden adfærd. . 14
2.2 Dekonstruktion af stalkingbegrebet . 15
2.2.1 Den sociale diskurs 15
2.2.2 Den juridiske diskurs . 17
2.2.3 Den videnskabelige diskurs . 19
2.3 Forskningsparadigmatiske tilgange til stalking . 19
2.3.1 Det klinisk-forensiske forskningsparadigme 19
2.3.2 Relationelle perspektiver . 21
2.3.3 Opsummerende diskussion 24
2.3.4 På vej mod en integrativ forklaringsmodel for stalking 25
2.4 Evolutionsteori som metateoretisk forklaringsmodel for partnerstalking. 25
2.4.1 Grundprincipper i den evolutionære teori . 26
2.4.2 En evolutionspsykologisk begrebsliggørelse af kriminel adfærd 27
2.4.3 Sexual Strategies Theory (Buss) 28
3 Fylogenetisk grundlag for stalking: reproduktive strategier 30
3.1 Reproduktion som et fylogenetisk universalie 30
3.2 Kortids- versus Langtidsrelationer 30
3.3 Parental Investment Theory: 31
3.3.1 Parforholdspræferencer 31
3.3.2 Partnerpræferencer. 32
3.3.3 Mageværdi . 33
3.3.4 Valg af seksuel strategi som funktion af mageværdi 33
3.4 Strategisk konflikt blandt kønnene. . 34
3.5 Belønnende vs. Omkostningsinducerende strategier . 35
3.6 Partnerstalking som omkostningsinducerende strategi 36
3.7 Strategiske omkostninger for ofre for stalking 38
3.8 Stalkingofres modstrategier. 40
3.9 Evolution af partnerstalking som adaptionistisk proces 41
3.10 Stalking som strategisk modsvar på adaptive problemer 41
3.11 Stalkingadfærds adaptive funktion 42
3.11.1 Magetiltrækning 42
3.11.2 Overvågning og retention af partner . 43
3.11.3 Mageretention og at vinde en partner tilbage. 44
3.11.4 Seksuel udnyttelse og rovdrift. . 46
3.11.5 Afværgelse af konkurrenter i konkurrencen om partnere. . 46
3.11.6 Maladaptiv stalkingadfærd 47
3.12 Kønsforskelle i stalking . 48
3.13 Kønsforskelle i aggression. 49
3.14 Aggression og risikovillighed 50
3.15 Aggression i livsperspektiv . 50
3.16 Motivationelle forskelle blandt kønnene . 51
3.17 Kønsforskelle i jalousi . 51
3.18 Opsummering . 53
 Note: -
 Type: Speciale
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