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  Måling af ulighed i velfærdsstater
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Ophav

 Ophav:
Christensen, Julie1, Forfatter
Ploug, Niels2, Vejleder
Tilknytninger:
1Det Samfundsvidenskabelige Fakultet, Københavns Universitet, København, Danmark, diskurs:7001              
2Økonomisk Institut, Det Samfundsvidenskabelige Fakultet, Københavns Universitet, København, Danmark, diskurs:7014              
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Indhold

Ukontrollerede emneord: Ulighed, ulighedsindikatorer, trivsel
 Abstract: The Danish welfare state is known for a high degree of equality. Through redistribution and a large public sector, financed by high income tax, the welfare state provides a wide range of public goods and a safety net for members of society. There is political focus on securing equal opportunities and to ensure that Denmark is a country with a relative low degree of inequality. In order to achieve the objective of equality, it is essential that politicians are informed of areas where inequality exist. Therefore it is important to have proper instruments to measure inequality and that there is consensus on how to measure inequality and in what dimensions it should be measured. This thesis will, based on the national and international research, select the indicators to be included when one wishes to illustrate the extent and trends in the inequality in Denmark. The objective is to achieve common understanding of the inequality issues and political focus on solving these issues. Why the focus on inequality? Inequality does not only have consequences for individuals, but also affects society - inequality may for example influences growth. Neither theory nor empirical evidence, however, gives us a clear answer to what direction this influence occurs. Inequality may also have negative impact on cohesion, as it creates distance between individuals in society when individuals do not have the same opportunities. A number of different organizations in Denmark (Arbejdernes Erhversråd, SFI, Finansminsiteriet etc.) are developing estimates of inequality. Common for these organizations is that the choice of indicators, measuring methods and data is taken independently by themselves. There exists no official measurement of inequality in Denmark. Hence the discussion of inequality often focuses on the measurement method instead of the results and thus no one is obligated to act on the results. Furthermore, there is no guarantee that the same indicators will be measured annually, which makes it difficult to analyze trends over time. In Denmark, a measurement of the proportion of families/individuals live on less than 50 % of the median income and the gini-coefficient is often used as indicators of inequality. When such objectives are used it is important to note that we only get information of economic inequality. No in formation about other aspects of inequality or the consequences of this economic inequality is obtained through these objectives.
Inequality is, however, not only a matter of economics, but a multidimensional object that requires multidimensional measuring methods: and the thesis sees inequality is a question of measuring the distribution of well-being. Therefore we have to identify the dimensions that are crucial for individuals to achieve the best possible living condition. By identifying the key dimensions of “the good life” we ensure a more accurate and nuanced picture of the inequality in Denmark. At the same time we get the best information about the inequality challenges and thus the foundation for solving them.
Based on a series of analyzes and reports for OECD, Office for National Statistic (ONS), the Commission on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress and Danish surveys (Levekårsundersøgelserne) this thesis selects seven dimensions of well-being which are crucial in order to obtain good living conditions. The selected dimensions are; Income & Wealth, Housing, Employment, Working conditions, Education, Health and Social connections.
In each dimension three indicators for the inequality are chosen. The selection of the indicators is based on a wide range of reports dealing with measures for inequality. These reports have been analyzed in order to secure a solid base for my own selection of the indicators. The selection of the indicators is based on a number of criteria: in particular they must be easy to interpret, be able to show the distribution among different groups in society and be able to detect changes. Last criteria enable us to analyze trends and to see if political action has the desired effect. Further there is emphasis on the inclusion of both subjective and objective measurements. Within each dimension a main indicator is selected. By looking at these seven main indicators, it is possible to get an overall picture of the inequality and trends. To obtain a more detailed picture all the indicators should be included. The table on the next page shows the selected indicators.
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Mime-type / størrelse:
application/pdf / 6MB
Copyright dato:
2012-06-11
Copyright information:
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Basal

Bogmærk denne post: https://diskurs.kb.dk/item/diskurs:31110:3
 Type: Speciale
Alternativ titel: Measuring inequality in welfare states
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Detaljer

Sprog: Danish - dan
 Datoer: 2012-03-02
 Sider: -
 Publiceringsinfo: København : Københavns Universitet
 Indholdsfortegnelse: KAPITEL 1. INDLEDNING 8
1.1 FORMÅL OG PROBLEMFORMULERING 10
1.2 METODE OG AFGRÆNSNING 11
1.3 SPECIALETS OPBYGNING 13
KAPITEL 2. ULIGHED – GODT ELLER SKIDT? 13
2.1 ULIGHED KAN UDFORDRE SAMMENHÆNGSKRAFTEN 16
2.2 ULIGHED, FATTIGDOM OG SOCIAL EKSKLUSION – HVAD ER FORSKELLEN? 16
2.3 DELKONKLUSION 18
KAPITEL 3. GÆNGSE ULIGHEDS MÅL – HVILKEN HISTORIE FORTÆLLER DE? 19
3.1 GINIKOEFFICIENTEN 19
3.1.1 UDVIKLINGEN I DEN DISPONIBLE INDKOMST FORDELT PÅ INDKOMSTGRUPPER 22
3.2 ØKONOMISK FATTIGDOM SOM MÅL FOR ULIGHED 22
3.2.1 VARIGHEDEN AF FATTIGDOM ER AFGØRENDE 24
3.3 ANDRE MÅL 24
3.4 DELKONKLUSION 25
KAPITEL 4. PENGE ER IKKE ALT [] 25
4.1 FRA MÅLING AF ØKONOMISK PRODUKTION TIL MÅLING AF TRIVSEL 26
4.1.1 ULIGHED ET VIGTIGT ASPEKT AF TRIVSEL… 28
4.2 ULIGHED – ET SPØRGSMÅL OM AT MÅLE FORDELINGEN AF TRIVSEL. 28
4.3. DIMENSIONER AF TRIVSEL 31
4.4 DELKONKLUSION 35
KAPITEL 5. RAMMEN FOR MÅLING AF ULIGHED/UDVÆLGELSEN AF INDIKATORERNE 35
5.1. SUBJEKTIVE VS. OBJEKTIVER MÅL 37
5.2. ULIGHED FORDELT PÅ [] 38
5.3 DELKONKLUSION 40
KAPITEL 6. DIMENSIONER OG ULIGHEDSINDIKATORER 41
6.1 INDKOMST OG FORMUE 41
6.1.1. INDIKATORER FOR ULIGHED I INDKOMST OG FORMUE 42
6.1.2 INDIKATORER – EN OPSAMLING 46
6.2 BOLIGFORHOLD 46
6.2.1. INDIKATORER FOR ULIGHED I BOLIGFORHOLD 47
6.2.2 INDIKATORER ‐ EN OPSAMLING 51
6.3 BESKÆFTIGELSESFORHOLD 52
6.3.1. INDIKATORER FOR ULIGHED I BESKÆFTIGELSEN 53
6.3.2 INDIKATORER – EN OPSAMLING 56
6.4 ARBEJDSFORHOLD OG BALANCE MELLEM ARBEJDE OG FRITID 57
6.4.1 INDIKATORER FOR ULIGHED I ARBEJDSFORHOLDENE 57
6.4.2 INDIKATORER – EN OPSAMLING 61
6.5 UDDANNELSE 61
6.5.1. INDIKATORER FOR ULIGHED I UDDANNELSE 62
6.5.2 INDIKATORER – EN OPSAMLING 65
6.6 SUNDHED 66
6.6.1 INDIKATORER FOR ULIGHED I SUNDHED 66
6.6.2 INDIKATORER – EN OPSAMLING 70
6.7 SOCIALE FORHOLD 70
6.7.1. INDIKATORER FOR ULIGHED I SOCIALE RELATIONER 71
6.7.2 INDIKATORER – EN OPSAMLING 73
6.8. OPSUMMERING 74
KAPITEL 7. AGGREGERET MÅL FOR ULIGHED – ET FREMTIDSPERSPEKTIV 75
KAPITEL 8. KONKLUSION 77
LITTERATURLISTE 79
BILAG 82
 Note: -
 Type: Speciale
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