Genes, elite athletic performance and obesity
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Rossing, Laura Irwin1, Forfatter
Kondrup, Jens1, Vejleder
Vaag, Allan1, Vejleder
Grunnet, Louise Groth1, Vejleder
1Det Biovidenskabelige Fakultet, København, Danmark
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 Abstract: Introduction: The fat mass and obesity associated gene, FTO rs9939609, is associated with obesity and Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). FTO is expressed in muscle, adipose and pancreatic tissue which are relevant to obesity. FTO is shown to indirectly contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity and T2D by altering body composition, appetite regulation and energy efficiency. Objectives: To investigate the gene frequency of FTOrs9939609, A risk allele in Danish elite athletes and its effect on weight change, elite performance, appetite, vO2max and inheritance. Methods: 77 Danish elite athletes (40 ¿, 37 ¿) were recruited either via the Institute for Sports Medicine in Copenhagen, Team Danmark or Facebook. The subjects filled out a questionnaire, were measured, weighed on a bioimpedance scale and blood samples were taken. Plasma lipids were analysed at Bispebjerg Hospital and HbA1c at Steno Diabetes Center (SDC). DNA samples were prepared at SDC and genotyped at KBioScience, UK. Statistical program R-Gui 2.7.2 was used. Meanand 95% CI is given for anthropometric data. Continuous data was log transformed and the p-value given. Median and 1st and 3rd quartiles are given for whole data genotypes. Categorical data was analysed per allele and Fishers Exact test or Chi2 p-value. Results: The minor allele frequency of FTO was similar to a Danish background population (0.38 vs 0.42, p=0.59). On all whole data and after stratification there was no association of the genotype with Elite performance based on level of competition (p=0.79) or vO2max (p=0.60); nor weight development from the start, (p=0.40), the top (p=0.07) and at retirement (p=0.36) of an elite career. There was no difference in Retirees weight gain and genotype (p=0.76). Eating habits after retirement were the same per genotype (gram: p=1.00, kJ: p=0.53 and appetite: p=1.00). There were no familial traits with T2D, obesity or Cardiovascular disease (CVD) (p=1.00) or as elite athletes (p=0.78). Discussion: The tendency in weight development is a positive association. Hip circumference is significant. Although the hypotheses (objectives) were not conclusive, it should be noted this partly believed to be a result of using an additive model. The population is too small for a genetic study; giving it low power. The A metabolic traits ought to be investigated further.Conclusion and perspectives: The gene frequency of FTO rs9939609 was the same as in a Danish background population. There was an additive effect of HC and the genotype and whilst there was no significant association with weight development, a trend shows risk allele bearers are heavier at the top and upon retirement. This gives a good reason to map the effect of FTO in an Elite population and look at the interplay between obesity, an environmental effect of exercise effecting athletic phenotype. Alternative methods are useful in recruitment, including recruitment of patients, such as Facebook.
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 Type: Speciale
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Sprog: English - eng
 Datoer: 2009
 Sider: 113 pages
 Publiceringsinfo: København, Danmark : Institut for Human Ernæring
 Indholdsfortegnelse: -
 Note: Clinical Nutrition, Klinisk ernæring
 Type: Speciale
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