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  Drought adaptation in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) under different soil managements and microclimatic conditions: a field study in Southern Bolivia
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 Ophav:
Jensen, Helle Ansine1, Forfatter
Jacobsen, Sven-Erik1, Vejleder
Neergaard, Andreas de1, Vejleder
Tilknytninger:
1Det Biovidenskabelige Fakultet, København, Danmark
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 Abstract: Quinoa is along with llamas the main income for the people in the central and southern altiplano of Bolivia. The local variety quinoa real which includes several ecotypes is well adapted to the harsh climatic conditions and dry environments near the salt flats of Uyuni as it is highly drought and salt tolerant. During the last decade, export of quinoa has increased drastically, which has led to an intensified cultivation on the altiplano, and a loss of traditional soil management techniques. Less regular rainfalls and longer drought periods, as well as poor soil conservation, increase the risk of desertification of these areas and are thus threatening quinoa production. Traditional selection with respect to their characteristics and adaptation to these environments is not common practice in the area. A field experiment was conducted at two locations with different microclimates and soil preparation in Nor Lipez (region of Potosi) in the growing season of 2008-2009. Drought adaptation of eight ecoptypes was compared in terms of germination, development, transpiration rate, final yield and seed quality. Transpiration from leaves was evaluated by measuring stomatal conductance.The results demonstrate that the probability of germination was higher on the plain (pampa) compared to on the hill, but with less survival. Germination percentage did not differ between ecotypes in the field experiment. They differed however, in a controlled experiment in Denmark where germination also increased highly when soil moisture increased from 4 to 6 % humidity, whereas a 6 to 8 % increase in humidity did not have much effect. Time of development varied between ecotypes and fields with faster development on the hill. In all fields stomatal conductance was downregulated under drought and upregulated when watered with difference between ecotypes for pampa rainfed and pampa irrigated. Stomatal conductance was generally lower for irrigated plants, which probably were water limited. Drip irrigation showed best results. Final yield and seed quality were significantly higher on the hill compared to the pampa.The results of this study will be used as a basis to discuss the choice of ecotypes and field location in the dry area of Nor Lipez. Improvement of quinoa cultivation under drier conditions is important to ensure a stable quinoa production (also in dry years), in order to maintain the income level of the local population in the Altiplano and to secure the fragile natural ecosystem.
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MscHelleAnsineJensen.pdf (Hovedtekst)
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Bogmærk denne post: https://diskurs.kb.dk/item/diskurs:12279:1
 Type: Speciale
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Detaljer

Sprog: English - eng
 Datoer: 2010
 Sider: 68 pages
 Publiceringsinfo: København, Danmark : Institut for Jordbrug og Økologi
 Indholdsfortegnelse: -
 Note: Agricultural Science, Agronom
 Type: Speciale
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